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Released 20/03/2007



Challenges of Water Scarcity: A Business Case for Financial Institutions

By the United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative (UNEP FI) and the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI). © 2005 UNEP FI - SIWI


The overall purpose of this report is to mobilise the financial sector to pay greater attention to the global challenges of water scarcity. The case for the financial sector is premised on the notion that water scarcity challenges pose considerable and different type of risks and opportunities for financial institutions and for their clients in many regions of the world.

Financial institutions which assume the risk of companies and projects, can exercise considerable influence – and in some cases control - over investment and management decisions that could be brought into play for the benefit of both their clients and water sustainability.


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Water resource scarcity and conflict: review of applicable indicators and systems of reference

By Pal Tamas. © 2003 UNESCO


The abundance or scarcity of resources decides what direction the development of a society will take. Imbalances, not only of scarcity but of abundance also, may distort environmental and socioeconomic policies, leading to social friction, though newer approaches to social problems do not see scarcity as leading necessarily to conflict.

This article considers conflict resolution capabilities, in particular the institutional dimensions, comparing capacities in developed and developing countries. The article presents mostly tools for large-scale change, but the relevance of incremental advances is also considered. Early warning models to predict the likelihood of conflict are compared, as are risk-assessment models such as that of the Minorities at Risk Project and conflict prevention trajectories to identify ‘preventors’ of conflict.


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