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Released 13/04/2007


Practices and experiences of water and wastewater technology. Proceedings of the Seminar organized by the Regional Centre on Urban Water Management (RCUWM-Tehran) 5-7 October 2004, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

By UNESCO’s International Hydrological Programme (IHP); © 2006 UNESCO-IHP


Population growth in urban areas results in increased water demands and puts pressure on finite water resources. The resulting difficulties in managing water and wastewater lead to social, environmental and financial challenges. This seminar was organized to provide a positive way forward by helping to focus on regionally important problems and identify deficiencies, potential risks and threats associated with current means of water and wastewater management, while also enabling participants to suggest realistic solutions.

The proceedings include the papers presented, as well as the outcomes of the seminar, in the hope that they will be helpful for decision makers, experts and those involved in urban water management in the Arab States region.


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Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater

By the World Health Organization (WHO); © 2006 WHO   


The third edition of the WHO Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater has been extensively updated to take account of new scientific evidence and contemporary approaches to risk management. The revised Guidelines reflect a strong focus on disease prevention and public health principles.

This new edition responds to a growing demand from WHO Member States for guidance on the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater in agriculture and aquaculture.

The Guidelines are presented in four separate volumes: Volume 1: Policy and regulatory aspects; Volume 2: Wastewater use in agriculture; Volume 3: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture; and Volume 4: Excreta and greywater use in agriculture.


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Wastewater use

This World Health Organization’s (WHO) section explains what wastewater use is, contains the WHO Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater, and related documents.



This website of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), of the Queensland Government (Australia), contains answers to different questions such as: Where does wastewater come from? What is wastewater treatment? What happens in a sewage treatment plant? How is waste water managed? Is wastewater treatment effective?

What are future directions? And: How can I help?